Guest Post by Nina Lalumia

The Etymology of ‘Introvert’ and ‘Introspective’

Based on its Latin roots, ‘introverted’ means turned to the inside. Lots of words have the same roots in different combinations. ‘INTRO-duce’ means to lead in; and ‘re-VERT’ means to turn back. Similarly, based on its roots, ‘introspective’ means looking inward (compare to ‘retro-SPECTIVE,’ which means looking backward). So, based on their roots, ‘introverted’ and ‘introspective’ seem to mean pretty much the same thing; therefore it’s not surprising that many people are unclear about the important differences in meaning between them, as we shall explore below…

The Meaning of ‘Introvert’ in Psychology

The psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961) developed a theory of psychological types, characterized by the tendency of a person to prefer one of two basic attitudes: Introverted or Extraverted (that’s how the word is still spelt in some contexts). On his theory, people employ these attitudes in the way that they gather information (Intuitive or Sensory) and in the way they make decisions (based on Feeling or Thinking). Jung’s theory was developed and modified by Katherine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Myers. They published an assessment tool in 1944, in order to help women entering the workforce find what kind of work would be “most comfortable and effective” for them. This later became the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), which also assesses a person’s general approach to the world: Perceiving or Judging.

The questions in the MBTI test that are used to assess whether a person is introverted, and to what degree, ask people to examine how they behave. Introverts tend to choose the first option in the questions listed below:

  • Do you reflect first and then act after? Do you listen first and then speak—or the opposite? (As an extroverted friend of mine was once described: She shoots first and asks questions later!)
  • Do you pursue in-depth knowledge and understanding of the topics that interest you, or do you gather a wide breadth of knowledge, on a more superficial level?
  • Do you prefer one-to-one conversation on substantial topics, or do you like frequent interaction with many people or in larger groups—again, on a more superficial level?
  • Are you cautious about letting people into your small circle of intimacy, or do you readily accept many people as your “friends”?
  • Do you re-energize yourself by spending time alone, or by spending time with other people?

What it means to be introspective

As its etymology suggests, an introspective person is one who tends to look inward. Of course this doesn’t literally mean that they turn their eyes into their head, like in some horror movie! It means that they tend to give their attention to their own thoughts, feelings and experiences. To give attention to your own experience means to examine how an event affects you directly and personally, rather than looking at it objectively. News reporters are meant to examine what happens objectively, without expressing how it affects them personally. By contrast, an introspective person may be understood as one who is regularly writing their autobiography–either by keeping a journal, or by narrating it to themselves or to others. This is not a bad quality in itself. It does NOT mean that introspective people are necessarily narcissistic or self-centred. But since our attention is limited, it does suggest that introspective people tend to give more attention to their own experience rather than to the world “out there” that we all share.

Introvert and Introspective: Not The Same Thing

A major source of confusion between the words is the conflict that is often found between the questions used in the MBTI test, on the one hand, and common descriptions of what it means to be introverted, on the other–even on the official MBTI site itself! None of the assessment questions above suggests that introverts (the people who prefer the first option in each case) are more introspective than extroverts. We know from the questions that an introverted person has a pattern or behaviour of spending more time alone, but for what reason we cannot know. Is the time spent alone used to look inwards (introspectively)? The test questions do not look at this but yet our general, unclarified understanding of the terms ‘introvert’ and ‘introspective’ lumps the two meanings together. In truth, introverts, as identified by the questions in the MBTI test, may be just as interested in the world and other people as extroverts—but importantly, their interest in the world is expressed through a different mode or style.

The key to understanding this may be found in the use of the word ‘reflect.’ It is often said that introverts like to reflect. But what do they typically reflect on? Importantly, they reflect or look in the “mirror” not necessarily to look at or understand themselves, but to inspect and understand more deeply The World (of which each of us is a small but important part). So don’t get confused by descriptions that suggest that introverts are more introspective than other people: that they direct their energy toward their own inner world, or that they have a strong internal focus, inward toward their own thoughts, feelings and experiences. They may do; or they may not. We don’t know because the questions in the MBTI test themselves do not give us this information.

Introverts who are not Introspective:

One characteristic of introverts is that they generally prefer to spend their free time, and to re-energise themselves, by doing things alone, not with other people. One of the things that an introvert might do in his or her alone-time is read a book. But when a person reads a book, they are not being introspective: they are not looking inward at themselves. They are learning about the world. This is true even if they are reading fiction. The best fiction represents in a concentrated way issues that real people face in the real world. 

Introverts who are Introspective

An example of an introspective introvert is someone who looks inward gathering information from life experiences in order to learn or grow through them. By taking time to quietly contemplate life, an introspective introvert increases their understanding of the world through the lens of their own experience. So if such a person does in fact write an autobiography, or publish their journals, by reading such works we can learn a lot about the world…as it appeared to them.

You may be introverted but not recognise it

Due to a blurry understanding of the meaning of ‘introvert,’ which often sees it as the same thing as being introspective, introverted people don’t always recognise or accept their introverted natures. So just because you are not introspective, DO NOT rule out the possibility that you may be introverted. As an introvert, you may be just as interested in other people and in understanding the world as extroverts are—only in a different mode or style. Actually, true introspection is something that most of us have to work hard to learn: to become aware of the relationships between our thought-processes, our emotions, and our behaviour. We have to learn this skill if we want to identify unhealthy patterns, make changes and get over the obstacles that are holding us back.

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I am introverted, strongly empathetic, a Highly Sensitive Person, and a philosopher who aims to bring clarity to concepts and encourage you to live more fully out of your own power.


  1. This is interesting, Nina – and for me, the bit of etymology thrown in makes it even more so!
    I think I’ve always been more of an extraspective/outrospective introvert, but since stumbling onto Jade’s videos and then this blog via the unlikely act of looking up the pronunciation of a name, I’ve ended up looking in to my own personality by way of a lot more introspection recently. Stuff that has been right in front of me, so to speak, but that I hadn’t devoted much thought to before. I’m appreciating this shift of perspective.
    There is a cool RSA video called “The power of outrospection” – has anybody seen it?
    The speaker, Roman Krznaric, has an interesting story, where he experienced childhood trauma that put him into what Jade has described as the grey zone, then led to his interest in empathy:

    • Nina Lalumia Reply

      Thank you very much Ken for this interesting comment. I, too, am very interested in empathy, and I found the material you linked quite thought-provoking. Before I read the comments to my post, I had never heard the term ‘outrospection.’ Using this term as Krznaric does is an effective way to counteract the tendency many people have to be self-centered. One of my aims in my post is to correct the common misconception that introverts are self-centered. But I also do not think an introspective person is necessarily self-centered. Since we experience all kinds of things, a person who gives much of their attention to analysing their own experience (an introspective person) may well learn more about the world than an extroverted person. This topic comes up in the writings of Martin Buber. In German, there are two words for ‘experience’: Erfahrfung and Erlebnis. The first has the connotation of traveling over the surface; the second has the connotation of living through something in a deeper way. Thus for example many people have traveled a lot, but they haven’t really thought much about their experience, so they haven’t learned much from it. By contrast, an introspective person may learn much more just by going shopping in their own neighbourhood, because once they get home they will reflect more deeply on what they have experienced. By contrast, the other kind of introvert (I will stick to calling them outward-looking) may spend their alone time studying the history of astronomy, for example. They are directly interested in other things or people, without habitually going through the lens of their own experience. So now that I’m aware of the term ‘outrospection,’ I want to keep it well out of the way when talking about introverts and introspection. There’s nothing about being introverted per se that would make you more (or less) empathetic than anyone else. As properly understood, the introvert/extrovert distinction has to do with what kinds of activities restore or deplete a person’s energy, and what kinds of social interaction a person prefers. Hoping to continue the discussion. Cheers!

    • Haha, Germans are good at encapsulating complicated concepts in complicated words… Bremsstrahlung, schadenfreude, these:

      I can identify with the first concept of erfahrung. I often have to remind myself to look around, “smell the roses,” so to speak, as I can get lost in thought while in the most beautiful or exciting surroundings, but even so, I am most likely thinking about something abstract or (ironically) of the outside world than about myself or my immediate surroundings.

  2. Kaan SALMAN Reply

    Good article

    it seems to me that I’m an introspective introvert.

    • Nina Lalumia Reply

      Thank you for your comment! I hope it’s helpful for you to get more clarity on your personality type, and then that it helps you develop and use your strengths, and find work, places and people that suit your nature and nurture it.

  3. Intersting article!
    I think I’m an introspective introvert too.

    • Nina Lalumia Reply

      Thank you for your comment. I’m happy you find it interesting. I also hope that it helps you in some way in your personal development to have this insight about yourself.

    • Nina Lalumia Reply

      Thank you for your positive feedback! Wow, there seems to be a lot of out-going introspective introverts out there! At least all the comments so far have come from introspective introverts! So to balance it out, I’ll let you in on something: I am a NON-introspective introvert! I will have to think about a better term for this. I guess the opposite of introspection would be extro-spection, but that’s not an English word, and doesn’t sound right. Any suggestions out there? Meanwhile, I’ll have a think on it…

      • Nina Lalumia Reply

        I think I’ve got it!
        Be on the lookout for outward-looking introverts!
        It has a tug and pull to it, don’t it?
        It pulls in one direction and tugs in the other.
        That’s how it feels to me as well.
        Outward-looking introvert.
        Yeah, I like it!
        What do you lot have to say?

      • I think it should be ‘outrospective’ but that already has a meaning ‘getting to know others through empathy’ and I don’t think it quite fits.

    • Yes, me too, I’m an Italian introspective introvert. Maybe couse sometimes I’m afraid to show who I really am,and appear presumptuous.

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